Reading ( RED-ing) is a large, historic market town in Berkshire, South East England. Situated in the Thames Valley at the confluence of the rivers Thames and Kennet, it is on the Great Western Main Line railway and the M4 motorway. Reading is 40 miles (64 km) east of Swindon, 30 miles (48 km) south of Oxford, 40 miles (64 km) west of London, 15 miles (24 km) north of Basingstoke, 12 miles (19 km) southwest of Maidenhead and 15 miles (24 km) east of Newbury.
The first evidence for Reading as a town dates from the 8th century. It was an important trading and ecclesiastical centre in the medieval period, as the site of Reading Abbey, one of the largest and richest monasteries of medieval England with strong royal connections, of which the 12th-century abbey gateway and significant ancient ruins remain. By 1525, Reading was the largest town in Berkshire, and tax returns show that Reading was the 10th largest town in England when measured by taxable wealth. The medieval town was seriously affected by the English Civil War, with a major siege and loss of trade, and played a pivotal role in the Revolution of 1688, with that revolution's only significant military action fought on the streets of the town. The 18th century saw the beginning of a major iron works in the town and the growth of the brewing trade for which Reading was to become famous. The 19th century saw the coming of the Great Western Railway and the development of the town's brewing, baking and seed growing businesses. During that period, the town grew rapidly as a manufacturing centre.
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