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Alexandria ( or ; Arabic: الإسكندرية‎ al-ʾIskandarīyah; Egyptian Arabic: اسكندرية‎ Eskendereyya; Coptic: ⲣⲁⲕⲟϯ Rakodī; Greek: Αλεξάνδρεια Alexándria) is the third-largest city in Egypt after Cairo and Giza, the seventh-largest city in Africa, and a major economic centre. With a total population of 5,381,000, Alexandria is the largest city on the Mediterranean – also called the "Bride of the Mediterranean" by locals – the fourth-largest city in the Arab world and the ninth-largest urban area
in Africa. The city extends about 40 km (25 mi) at the northern coast of Egypt along the Mediterranean Sea. Alexandria is a popular tourist destination, and also an important industrial centre because of its natural gas and oil pipelines from Suez.
Alexandria was founded in c. 331 BC by Alexander the Great, King of Macedon, and leader of the Greek League of Corinth. Alexander captured Egypt from the Persians during his conquest of the Achaemenid Empire, and declared himself Pharoah of Egypt, and the Son of Ra after visiting the sacred Oracle of Siwaa. An Egyptian village named Rhacotis existed at the location, and grew into the Egyptian quarter of the city.
Alexandria grew rapidly, becoming a major centre of Hellenic civilisation. The city replaced Memphis as Egypt's capital, a status that it would retain for almost a millennium during the reign of the Ptolemaic pharoahs who succeeded Alexander, through the period of Roman and Eastern Roman (Byzantine) rule until the Muslim conquest of Egypt in 641 AD, when a new capital was founded at Fustat (later absorbed into Cairo).
Alexandria was best known for the Lighthouse of Alexandria (Pharos), one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, its Great Library (the largest in the ancient world), and the Necropolis, one of the Seven Wonders of the Middle Ages.


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